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This article is the product of the analysis of a controversy between historians Giovanni Levi and Robert Darnton. Three issues were, among others: the first refers to the indication that Darnton would have done the mechanical transposition of the interpretative anthropology for the field of cultural history; the second relates to the Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics by Noelle Pottier,.
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They are passed on, time and again, from one male to another in his social group. Soon they were adopted by many young adults of both sexes right across America and Europe, and following this trend came the flop-out posture.
The young in question began to sit or lie on the floors of their rooms instead of in conventional seating, and also on the steps and pavements of cities, their legs sprawled out on rough or unclean surfaces that only jeans could defy.
Each summer in Amsterdam, Paris and London, the squatting, reclining figures could be seen in their hundreds, and the postural contrast with previous generations was striking. A manifestation of this change was to be seen in the s at open-air pop-music festivals, where whole days were spent lying on the ground and no attempt was made to provide any form of seating.
Jeans were not the whole story, however. The process went beyond clothing. There was a deeper change, a change in philosophy, that influenced the postural behaviour of the young. They developed an open-mindedness and a relaxed style of thinking that was reflected in a reduction of tension and muscular tonus in their actions. To the elderly, the body postures and actions that accompanied this change appeared slovenly, but to the objective observer they constituted a behaviour style, not a lack of style.
There is nothing new about this type of change. For literally thousands of years authors have been recording the dismay of older generations at the 'decaying' manners of the young.
Sometimes the complaint has been that they have become too foppish or dandyish; at others that they have become too effeminate or perhaps too boisterous or brusque. On each occasion the postures and gesticulations have changed in various ways, and by a process of rapid absorption the new action-styles have spread like wildfire, only to burn out and be replaced by others.
As with all fashion-changes, it is always impossible to predict which behaviour styles will be the ones to be eagerly emulated and absorbed by the young adults of future epochs. In many cases they are now so distinct that a true female could, by miming them accurately, make it quite clear that she was not acting in a feminine way, but was instead pretending to be a male homosexual.
Of course, not all homosexual males adopt these exaggerated actions. Many do not feel the need to display in this way.
Bearing this in mind, it is significant that whenever a comedian wishes to be derisive at the expense of homosexuals, he mimics the limpwristed, head-tossing, lip-pouting variety, and whenever serious actors portray homosexuals sympathetically, they reduce or omit these elements. It would seem that the heterosexual's intolerance is aroused more by homosexual manners than by homosexual love, which is an intriguing comment on the strength of our reactions to so-called 'trivial' mannerisms.
Human beings are not alone in this tendency to absorb actions from their companions. There are several field studies of monkeys and apes which reveal similar trends, with one colony of animals performing actions that are missing from other colonies of the same species, and which they can be shown to have learned by absorption from inventive individuals in their particular groups.
Both in monkeys and humans, it is clear that the status of the individual emulated is important.
The higher his or her status in a group, the more readily he or she is copied by the others. In our own society we absorb most from those we admire. This operates most actively among close personal contacts, but with mass media communications we also absorb actions from remote celebrities, public figures, and popular idols.
A twentieth-century example of this was the spread of the 'flop-out' resting posture among certain young adults in Western cities. During the s a sprawling posture when relaxing became highly infectious. Like many postural changes, this owes its origin to a change in clothing. The use of neatly pressed trousers for male casual wear lost ground steadily during the s, with blue jeans taking their place. Jeans, originally modified tent-cloth provided for hard-riding American cowboys, were for many years considered to be suitable only for manual labour.
At one end of the scale there are difficult physical achievements such as turning mid-air somersaults, or walking on your hands. Only expert acrobats can master these activities, after long hours of training. At the other end of the scale there are simple actions such as winking and shaking hands. In some cases these might almost fall into the category of Absorbed Actions, but if children are watched closely it soon becomes clear that the child must first teach itself, deliberately and consciously, many of the actions we adults take for granted.
The hand-shake, so natural to adults, seems unpleasant and awkward to small children and, at the outset, they usually have to be coaxed to offer a hand and then have the appropriate shaking action demonstrated to them. Watching a child first trying to master a knowing wink provides another vivid reminder of how difficult some apparently simple actions can be.
Indeed, some people never do master the wink, even as adults, though it is hard for a winker to understand why. Snapping the fingers, whistling and many other trivial acts fall into this category, in addition to the more obvious, complex skills.
But in distinguishing between the four corresponding types of actions, I do not wish to give the impression that they are rigidly separated. Many actions owe their adult form to influences from more than one of these categories.
To give some examples: Inborn Actions are often drastically modified by social pressures. Infantile crying, for instance, becomes transformed in adult life into anything from silent weeping or suppressed sobbing to hysterical screeching and piteous wailing, according to local cultural influences.
Discovered Actions are frequently influenced in the same way, being strongly modified by the unconscious emulation of social fashions. Sitting with the legs crossed, for instance, may be privately discovered as a pleasing, convenient posture, but the exact form it takes will soon come under the influence of unwritten social rules.
Without realizing it, children, as they grow older, start crossing their legs like other members of their own sex, class, age-group and culture. This will happen almost unnoticed. Even when it is noticed, it will probably not be analysed or understood. A member of one group, mixing with another, will feel ill at ease without realizing why.
The reason will be because the others are moving, posturing and gesticulating in an alien manner. The differences may be subtle, but they will be detectable and will register. A member of Such is the human passion for training that from time to time in the past elaborate attempts were made to teach 'oratorial gesticulation', despite the fact that few people need such instructions.
When asked why, he will reply: 'You've only got to look at them. To continue with the example of leg-crossing - certain American males have been reported as saying that they find European males slightly effeminate. When this reaction is analysed it turns out to have nothing to do with the sexual behaviour of European males, but rather with the fact that they often sit with one knee crossed over the other knee. To the European this is such a normal posture that he cannot even see it as a posture.
It is just a natural way to sit. But to the American male it appears effeminate because, at home, it is more often performed by his female than his male companions. The American male prefers - if he is going to cross his legs - to perform the ankle-knee cross, in which the ankle of one leg rests high up across the knee of the other leg.
A valid objection to this observation could be that many European males often adopt the ankle-knee cross posture and that American males, especially those from major cities, can sometimes be seen sitting with one knee crossed over the other. This is true, but it only underlines the sensitivity of the unconscious reactions people give to the behaviour of their companions. The difference is only a matter of degree.
More European males happen to behave in the one way, more Americans in the other. And yet this minor difference is enough to give a visiting American a distinct feeling that European males are in some way effeminate. In addition to these unconscious modifications there are also many conscious influences. Delightful examples of these can be tracked down in etiquette books from the past, especially in those from the Victorian period, when strict instructions were issued to young adults faced with the behaviour-minefield of correct deportment and good manners at social functions.
With regard to an inborn pattern such as crying, there might be ruthless demands for total suppression. No strong emotions may be shown. Hide your feelings. Do not let go. If a Victorian young lady responded to a tragedy with a few stifled sobs, she might be modifying her inborn urge to weep and scream, either by unconscious emulation of her 'betters', or by 18 conscious adherence to a manual of conduct.
Probably in most cases both were involved, making the final action a mixture of Inborn, Absorbed and Trained. Looking again at leg-crossing, the same situation applies. A Victorian girl was bluntly informed that 'a lady never crosses her legs'. By the earlier part of the twentieth century the rules were relaxed, but only for the most informal of contexts, and girls were still advised to avoid leg-crossing if possible.
If they felt compelled to do it, then they were requested to restrict themselves to a modest form of the action, such as the ankle-ankle cross, rather than the knee-knee cross. Today this might seem rather irrelevant - almost ancient history - in view of the recent revolutions in social behaviour.
If, for example, it is possible to see a naked young woman having her pubic hair combed by a naked young man on the London stage, then, surely, someone will argue, degrees of leg-crossing are strictly the concern of great-grandmothers?
But any serious fieldobserver of human behaviour would instantly deny this. Not only are such prim subtleties still very much with us today, but they are adhered to even by the most liberated individuals. It is all a matter of context. If you take the actress who permitted her pubic hair to be groomed on stage, clothe her, and set her down in a TV discussion studio, you will find her obeying all the polite rules of standard leg-crossing.
Present her to the Queen at a charity show, and this same person will fall back immediately upon medieval manners and dip her body in an ancient curtsey. So one must not be misled by cries of total cultural revolution.
Old action-patterns rarely die - they merely fade out of certain contexts. They limit their social range, but somehow, somewhere, they usually manage to survive.
So tenacious are they, that we are still today giving the sign that the imaginary gladiator may not be spared - when we give the thumbs-down - as if we are ancient Romans, or doffing our imaginary hats - when giving a casual salute - as if we are still clad in bygone headgear. We may no longer be aware of the original meanings of many I of the actions we perform today, but we continue to use them because we are taught to do so.
If we ask them, they do not know. We acquire the act, copying it slavishly, and then pass it on to others, who remain equally ignorant of its origins.
In this way, the early history of many actions is rapidly obscured, but this does not hamper their acquisition by new generations. Soon, they are being passed on, not because they are formally taught, but because we see others doing them and unthinkingly do likewise. They are therefore Mixed Actions of a special kind - they are historically mixed. They are therefore Mixed Actions when viewed across an historical time span, though not necessarily at any one point. To become a gesture, an act has to be seen by someone else and has to communicate some piece of information to them.
It can do this either because the gesturer deliberately sets out to send a signal - as when he waves his hand - or it can do it only incidentally - as when he sneezes.
The hand-wave is a Primary Gesture, because it has no other existence or function. It is a piece of communication from start to finish.
The sneeze, by contrast, is a secondary, or Incidental Gesture. Its primary function is mechanical and is concerned with the sneezer's personal breathing problem. In its secondary role, however, it cannot help but transmit a message to his companions, warning them that he may have caught a cold.
Most people tend to limit their use of the term 'gesture' to the primary form - the hand-wave type - but this misses an important point. What matters with gesturing is not what signals we think we are sending out, but what signals are being received. The observers of our acts will make no distinction between our intentional Primary Gestures and our unintentional, incidental ones.
In some ways, our Incidental Gestures are the more illuminating of the two, if only for the very fact that we do not think of them as gestures, and therefore do not censor and manipulate them so strictly. This is why it is preferable to use the term 'gesture' in its wider meaning as an 'observed action'.
A convenient way to distinguish between Incidental and Primary Gestures is to ask the question: Would I do it if I were completely alone? We do not wave, wink, or point when we are by ourselves; not, that is, unless we have reached the unusual condition of talking animatedly to ourselves. But although we do these things for our own benefit, we are not always unaccompanied when we do them.
Our companions learn a great deal about us from these 'personal' actions - not merely that we are scratching because we itch or that we are running because we are late, but also, from the way we do them, what kind of personalities we possess and what mood we are in at the time. Sometimes the mood signal transmitted unwittingly in this way is one that we would rather conceal, if we stopped to think about it.
Occasionally we do become self-consciously aware of the 'mood broadcasts' and 'personality displays' we are making and we may then try to check ourselves. But often we do not, and the message goes out loud and clear. For instance, if a student props his head on his hands while listening to a boring lecture, his head-on-hands action operates both mechanically and gesturally. As a mechanical act, it is simply a case of supporting a tired head - a physical act that concerns no one but the student himself.
At the same time, though, it cannot help operating as a gestural act, beaming out a visual signal to his companions, and perhaps to the lecturer himself, telling them that he is bored. In such a case his gesture was not deliberate and he may not even have been aware that he was transmitting it. If challenged, 22 he could claim that he was not bored at all, but merely tired.
If he were honest - or impolite - he would have to admit that excited attention easily banishes tiredness, and that a really fascinating speaker need never fear to see a slumped, head-propped figure like his in the audience. In the schoolroom, the teacher who barks at his pupils to 'sit up straight' is demanding, by right, the attention-posture that he should have gained by generating interest in his lesson.
It says a great deal for the power of gesture-signals that he feels more 'attended-to' when he sees his pupils sitting up straight, even though he is consciously well aware of the fact that they have just been forcibly un-slumped, rather than genuinely excited by his teaching. Many of our Incidental Gestures provide mood information of a kind that neither we nor our companions become consciously alerted to.
It is as if there is an underground communication system operating just below the surface of our social encounters. We perform an act and it is observed.
Its meaning is read, but not out loud. We 'feel' the mood, rather than analyse it. Occasionally an action of this type becomes so characteristic of a particular situation that we do eventually identify it - as when we say of a difficult problem: 'That will make him scratch his head', indicating that we do understand the link that exists between puzzlement and the Incidental Gesture of head-scratching.
But frequently this type of link operates below the conscious level, or is missed altogether. Where the links are clearer, we can, of course, manipulate the situation and use our Incidental Gestures in a contrived way. If a student listening to a lecture is not tired, but wishes to insult the speaker, he can deliberately adopt a bored, slumped posture, knowing that its message will get across.
This is a Stylized Incidental Gesture - a mechanical action that is being artificially employed as a pure signal. Many of the common 'courtesies' also fall into this category - as when we greedily eat up a plate of food that we do not want and which we do not like, merely to transmit a suitably grateful signal to our hosts. Controlling our Incidental Gestures in this way is one of the processes that every child must learn as it grows up and learns to adapt to the rules of conduct of the society in which it lives.
Five of these are unique to man, and depend on his complex, highly evolved brain.